HTML <tfoot> Tag

Groups the footer content in a <table>.

Purpose and Function

The <tfoot> HTML tag serves a pivotal role in structuring the footer content of an HTML table. It is specifically designed to encapsulate one or more <tr> (table row) elements that represent the footer row or rows of the table. This section typically contains <th> (table header) or <td> (table data) elements, offering a designated space for summarizing or providing additional information about the table's content.


To integrate the <tfoot> tag, you nest it within the <table> element, encapsulating the footer content. Here's a basic example:

<table> <thead> <tr> <th>Header 1</th> <th>Header 2</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>Data 1</td> <td>Data 2</td> </tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr> <td>Footer 1</td> <td>Footer 2</td> </tr> </tfoot> </table>
Header 1 Header 2
Data 1 Data 2
Footer 1 Footer 2

In this example, the <tfoot> element contains a row with two footer cells (<td>), defining the footer content of the table.

Real-World Use-Cases and Examples

Comprehensive Summary Information in Footer

Consider a scenario where you want to provide a detailed summary of the table's content in the footer:

<table> <thead> <tr> <th>Product</th> <th>Quantity</th> <th>Price</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>Item 1</td> <td>3</td> <td>$30.00</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Item 2</td> <td>2</td> <td>$20.00</td> </tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr> <td>Total Items</td> <td>5</td> <td>Total Price</td> <td>$50.00</td> </tr> </tfoot> </table>
Product Quantity Price
Item 1 3 $30.00
Item 2 2 $20.00
Total Items 5 Total Price $50.00

This example showcases a table with a footer row providing comprehensive summary information, including the total quantity and price.

Styling and Formatting

Styling within <tfoot> elements can be accomplished using CSS to enhance visual appeal or ensure consistency:

tfoot { background-color: #f2f2f2; font-weight: bold; text-align: right; }

This CSS snippet sets a background color, bold font, and right-aligned text for the footer row within the <tfoot>.

Accessibility and SEO Considerations

For accessibility, ensure that footer content within <tfoot> is appropriately marked up using <th> or <td> elements. This aids in screen reader interpretation and provides a structured understanding of the table's content.

For SEO, utilize meaningful and relevant footer content within <tfoot>. While search engines primarily focus on the overall document structure, informative footers contribute to a better understanding of the page's content.

Common Mistakes

The <tfoot> tag in HTML is used to define the footer content in a table. While it may seem straightforward, there are common mistakes that developers make when working with this tag. Let's delve into these pitfalls to ensure proper usage.

1. Missing the <tfoot> Tag After <tbody>

<table> <tbody> <tr> <td>Data 1</td> <td>Data 2</td> </tr> </tbody> <!-- Missing <tfoot> tag after <tbody> --> <tr> <td>Footer Data 1</td> <td>Footer Data 2</td> </tr> </table>

Ensure that the <tfoot> tag follows the <tbody> tag. This sequence maintains the correct hierarchy and ensures proper rendering of the table structure.

2. Placing <tfoot> Before <tbody>

<table> <!-- Incorrect placement of <tfoot> before <tbody> --> <tfoot> <tr> <td>Footer Data 1</td> <td>Footer Data 2</td> </tr> </tfoot> <tbody> <tr> <td>Data 1</td> <td>Data 2</td> </tr> </tbody> </table>

Place the <tfoot> tag after the <tbody> tag. Placing it before may lead to unexpected rendering issues, and browsers may not interpret the table structure correctly.

3. Using Multiple <tfoot> Tags

<table> <tbody> <tr> <td>Data 1</td> <td>Data 2</td> </tr> </tbody> <!-- Multiple <tfoot> tags --> <tfoot> <tr> <td>Footer Data 1</td> <td>Footer Data 2</td> </tr> </tfoot> <tfoot> <tr> <td>Another Footer Data 1</td> <td>Another Footer Data 2</td> </tr> </tfoot> </table>

Use only one <tfoot> tag per table. Having multiple <tfoot> tags can lead to confusion and unpredictable behavior in how the footer content is displayed.

4. Omitting <tr> Within <tfoot>

<table> <tbody> <tr> <td>Data 1</td> <td>Data 2</td> </tr> </tbody> <!-- Omitting <tr> within <tfoot> --> <tfoot> <td>Footer Data 1</td> <td>Footer Data 2</td> </tfoot> </table>

Always include a <tr> (table row) element within the <tfoot> tag. Omitting it can result in invalid HTML and may cause issues with the table's structure.

5. Nesting <tfoot> Inside <tbody> or Vice Versa

<table> <tbody> <!-- Incorrect nesting of <tfoot> inside <tbody> --> <tfoot> <tr> <td>Footer Data 1</td> <td>Footer Data 2</td> </tr> </tfoot> <tr> <td>Data 1</td> <td>Data 2</td> </tr> </tbody> </table>

Avoid nesting <tfoot> inside <tbody> or vice versa. Each section should be distinct and not nested within the other to maintain proper table structure.

By avoiding these common mistakes, you can ensure that your use of the <tfoot> tag contributes to well-structured and semantically correct HTML tables.


In conclusion, the <tfoot> HTML tag is a versatile and essential component for organizing the footer content of tables. Its application enhances the semantic structure of tables, contributing to improved accessibility and providing a dedicated space for summarizing or presenting additional information. By incorporating thoughtful styling and adhering to accessibility and SEO best practices, developers can create tables that not only look appealing but also offer a positive user experience and improved discoverability of content. Embrace the utility of <tfoot> to optimize your tables and elevate your web content.

More HTML Table Tags

Tag Description
<table> Creates a table element
<th> Creates a header cell in a <table>
<tr> Creates a row in a <table>
<td> Creates a cell for data in a <table>
<caption> Creates a caption in a <table>
<colgroup> Specifies a set of one or more columns within a <table> for formatting purposes
<col> Creates a column within a <colgroup> element
<thead> Groups the header content in a <table>
<tbody> Groups the body content in a <table>
<tfoot> Groups the footer content in a <table>